Mexican Journal of Biomedical Engineering 2021-08-25T04:59:43+00:00 Prof. Cesár Antonio González Díaz Open Journal Systems <center> <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Call for Papers for Special Issue on “Biomedical Engineering Innovations for Coronavirus COVID-19”</p> </div> </div> </div> <p><a href="Call%20for Papers for Special Issue on “Biomedical Engineering Innovations for Coronavirus COVID-19”"><strong>DOWNLOAD FULL INFO HERE</strong></a></p> <p><strong>MISSION</strong></p> <p align="left"><em>La Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Biomédica</em> (The Mexican Journal of Biomedical Engineering, RMIB, for its Spanish acronym) is a publication oriented to the dissemination of papers of the Mexican and international scientific community whose lines of research are aligned to the improvement of the quality of life through engineering techniques.</p> <p align="left">The papers that are considered for being published in the RMIB must be original, unpublished, and first rate, and they can cover the areas of Medical Instrumentation, Biomedical Signals, Medical Information Technology, Biomaterials, Clinical Engineering, Physiological Models, and Medical Imaging as well as lines of research related to various branches of engineering applied to the health sciences.</p> <p align="left">The RMIB is an electronic journal published quarterly ( January, May, September) by the Mexican Society of Biomedical Engineering,&nbsp; founded since 1980. It publishes articles in spanish and english and is aimed at academics, researchers and professionals interested in the subspecialties of Biomedical Engineering.</p> <p><strong>INDEXES</strong></p> <p><em>La revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Biomédica</em> is a quarterly publication, and it is found in the following indexes:</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/administrador/21.jpg" alt="" width="780" height="110"><img src="/public/site/images/administrador/1.jpg" alt="" width="780" height="110"><img src="/public/site/images/administrador/4.jpg" alt="" width="780" height="110"></p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/administrador/Unknown1.png" alt=""></p> </center> Determination of early bone metastasis on Bone Scans Using the Gray Levels Histogram 2021-02-16T16:49:18+00:00 Mónica Pérez Meza Alberto Jaramillo Núñez Bolivia Cuevas Otahola Jesús Alonso Arriaga Hernández Bárbara Emma Sánchez Rinza <p>The aim of this paper is to show a technique to speed up the interpretation of bone scans in order to determine the presence of early bone metastasis. This is done using the gray levels histogram of the region of interest. The technique is intended to assist in the bone scans interpretation in order to provide a successful diagnosis. During the analysis, three types of histograms were observed on the regions of interest. If the histogram is narrow and shifted toward the origin, the bone scan is free of metastasis.&nbsp; If it is shifted to the right and slightly broadened, indicates the presence of a bone anomaly different from a metastasis. On the other hand, if the histogram is more broadened and shifted to the right, is suggests the presence of metastasis. This histogram is characterized by displaying small curls on the right side providing information about the metastatic disease stage, which could be low-amplitude peaks and have a short length, if the metastasis is in early stage, or high-amplitude peaks and a long length, if is advanced.&nbsp; Finally, the analyzed region is displayed in false color considering the minimum gray levels observed in the histogram.</p> 2021-02-14T20:44:19+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mónica Pérez Meza, Alberto Jaramillo Núñez, Bolivia Cuevas Otahola, Jesús Alonso Arriaga Hernández, Bárbara Emma Sánchez Rinza Theoretical Study of the Function of the IP3 Receptor / BK Channel Complex in a Single Neuron 2021-03-01T15:59:44+00:00 María Eugenia Pérez Bonilla Marleni Reyes Monreal Jessica Quintero Pérez Miguel Pérez Escalera Arturo Reyes Lazalde <p>Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels carry out many functions in the central nervous system. The opening of BK channels requires a rise in the cytosolic calcium ([Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>cyt</sub>) concentration, which can occur in two ways: calcium influx from voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) located on the plasma membrane and calcium efflux through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane to the cytosol triggered by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP<sub>3</sub>) receptors (IP<sub>3</sub>-Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). The BK channel/IP<sub>3</sub>-R/RyR interaction has been widely reported in smooth muscle but scarce information exist on neurons, where its presence is uncertain. The aim of this study was to develop a computational model of a neuron to replicate the interaction between the release of Ca<sup>2+</sup> from the ER (through IP<sub>3</sub>-Rs and RyRs) and the opening of BK channels on the plasma membrane to regulate the level of [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>cyt</sub>, based on the Hodgkin-Huxley formalism and the Goldbeter model. The mathematical models were implemented on Visual Basic® and differential equations were solved numerically. Various conditions of BK conductance and the efflux of endoplasmic Ca<sup>2+</sup> were explored. The results show that an abrupt increase in [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>cyt</sub> (≥ 5 mM) activates the BK channels and either pauses or stops the action potential train.</p> 2021-03-01T15:59:42+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 María Eugenia Pérez Bonilla, Marleni Reyes Monreal, Jessica Quintero Pérez, Miguel Pérez Escalera, Arturo Reyes Lazalde Antibacterial Activity Analysis of Hydroxyapatite Based Materials with Fluorine and Silver 2021-03-21T03:38:49+00:00 Verónica González Torres Esteban Hernández Guevara Nydia Alejandra Castillo Martínez Martha Rosales Aguilar César Gerardo Díaz Trujillo <p>This investigation aims to evaluate the antibacterial activity of nanostructured hydroxyapatite based materials doped with silver and fluorine, to be used as a biomaterial with antibacterial activity. Four different formulations were prepared by combustion method: hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite-fluorine, hydroxyapatite-silver-fluorine and hydroxyapatite-silver, with 2% of the doping agents. X-ray diffraction technique was used to determine the mineralogy, identifying the presence of Ca<sub>5</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub>OH, Ca<sub>2</sub>P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>7</sub>, Ag<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>, AgCa<sub>10</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>7</sub> Ca<sub>5</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub>F and CaF<sub>2</sub> phases for the studied samples. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphological structure and it showed homogeneous crystallization of the hydroxyapatite and the inclusion of dopant agents. The antibacterial activity was determined using a modified inhibition test zone to observe if the bacteria (<em>E. faecalis</em>) was susceptible to the antimicrobial agent by the appearance of the zone of inhibition on the agar plate. Both the hydroxyapatite-silver and the hydroxyapatite-silver-fluorine materials generated an inhibition zone. It was possible to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration needed to kill most viable organisms after 48 hours of incubation using the broth microdilution method, resulting in 75 µg/ml and 200 µg/ml for the hydroxyapatite-silver and the hydroxyapatite-silver-fluorine formulation, respectively. These materials could be used for the development of new biomaterials that can be used in dental applications.</p> 2021-03-21T02:47:56+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Verónica González Torres, Esteban Hernández Guevara, Nydia Alejandra Castillo Martínez, Martha Rosales Aguilar, César Gerardo Díaz Trujillo Biomechanical Evaluation of Hemiarthroplasty in the First Proximal Phalanx. A Finite Element Study 2021-04-21T05:03:30+00:00 Mario Alberto Madrid Pérez Ricardo Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo Javier Bayod López <p>Hallux rigidus produces a decrease in the dorsiflexion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and is usually associated with the appearance of osteophytes. Hemiarthroplasty in the first proximal phalanx is a recommended surgical procedure in patients with advanced grade of hallux rigidus. Finite element analysis allows us to understand the biomechanical behavior of the foot. The objective of this work is to evaluate the biomechanical effects of an hemi implant placed in first proximal phalanx. Two models of finite elements are going to be compared, one free of pathologies and the other with a hemiarthroplasty in the first ray of the foot. We detected after inserting the prosthesis in the model that passive windlass mechanism is lost, and the lesser toes become overloaded, which leads to a loss of efficiency in gait as well as being able to cause postsurgical medical complications.</p> 2021-04-21T05:03:29+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mario Alberto Madrid Pérez, Ricardo Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Javier Bayod López Detection of Exudates and Microaneurysms in the Retina by Segmentation in Fundus Images 2021-05-20T06:23:51+00:00 Eduardo Bernal Catalán Eduardo De la Cruz Gámez José Antonio Montero Valverde Rafael Hernández Reyna José Luis Hernández Hernández <p>This article proposes two methodologies for the detection of lesions in the retina, which may indicate the presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Through the use of digital image processing techniques, it is possible to isolate the pixels that correspond to a lesion of RD, to achieve segmenting microaneurysms, the edges of the objects contained in the image are highlighted in order to detect the contours of the objects to select by size those that meet an area of 15 to 25 pixels in the case of 512x512 images and identify the objects as possible microaneurysms, while for the detection of exudates the green channel is selected to contrast the luminous objects in the retinography and from the conversion to gray scale, a histogram is graphed to identify the ideal threshold for the segmentation of the pixels that belong to the exudates at the end of the optical disk previously identified by a specialist. A confusion matrix supervised by an ophthalmologist was created to quantify the results obtained by the two methodologies, obtaining a specificity of 0.94 and a sensitivity of 0.97, values that are outstanding to proceed with the classification stage.</p> 2021-05-20T06:23:50+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Eduardo Bernal Catalán, Eduardo De la Cruz Gámez, José Antonio Montero Valverde, Rafael Hernández Reyna, José Luis Hernández Hernández Feature Extraction from Distributions of Phase Synchronization Values of EEG Recordings 2021-06-11T16:44:22+00:00 Jaime Arturo Quirarte Tejeda Jorge Luis Flores Nuñez Rebeca Romo Vázquez <p>Epilepsy is the most common neurological pathology. Despite treatments available to patients only 58% to 73% will be free of seizures. This uncertainty of the treatment’s outcome is the basis of other psychiatric affections to patients who are uncertain of the success of their treatment. Seizure prediction models (SPMs) emerged as an aid to help the patient know if he is susceptible to an imminent crisis; such models are based of continuous monitoring of EEG signals of the patient and subsequent continuous analysis of those signals. Looking for features in the signals which differentiate ictal from interictal is an ongoing field of research which aims to get a robust set of features to feed the SPM and get a high degree of certainty of when the next seizure will occur. In this work we propose the analysis of phase differences of EEG as a method to extract features which are able to discriminate between ictal and preictal states of a patient, in specific the numeric distance between q1 and q3 of the distribution of phase differences, We compare this values with other phase synchronization methods and test our hypothesis getting a p = &nbsp;0.0001 with our proposed method.</p> 2021-06-07T17:27:49+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jaime Arturo Quirarte Tejeda , Jorge Luis Flores Nuñez, Rebeca Romo Numerical Simulation of a Physiological Mathematical Model of Energy Consumption in a Sarcomere 2021-07-27T01:12:49+00:00 Kathia Gabriela Flores Rodríguez David Edel Pérez Garza Griselda Quiroz <p>Systems Biology of (SB) offers a platform for analyzing biological processes from the perspective of systems theory based on qualitative knowledge of the biological sciences to generate quantitative knowledge. The area of SB devoted to human health is called Systems Medicine. It studies physiological processes, pathological conditions, and recommended treatments with the goal of providing quantitative elements for optimizing medical treatments. Two analytical tools of SB are mathematical modelling and numerical simulation. The first offers a quantitative abstraction of processes; the second involves implementing computer-based models to reproduce and visualize the variables for purposes of prediction. This article presents a case of the application of mathematical modelling and numerical simulation to the physiological process of energy consumption in the sarcomere of skeletal muscle. It proposes a model that includes activation of the contractile cycle based on the action potential that reaches the neuromuscular union, calcium release into the sarcoplasm, the mechanical response, and quantification of the energy that the sarcomere requires to perform mechanical work.</p> 2021-06-24T22:51:15+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kathia Gabriela Flores Rodríguez, David Edel Pérez Garza, Griselda Quiroz Development of Films, Based on Oxidized Ipomea Batatas Starch, with Protein Encapsulation 2021-07-12T20:00:06+00:00 José Alvarez-Barreto Daniela Viteri Narvaez Juan Sebastian Proaño Aviles Andrés Bernando Caicedo Páliz Michelle Amanda Grunauer Andrade Luis Ricardo Eguiguren Michel Vargas <p>Oxidized or dialdehyde starches (DAS) have been used as biomaterials due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability; nonetheless, sweet potato (<em>Ipomea batatas L.</em>) starch has not been researched in this field. Films based on sweet potato DAS, mixed with native starch (NS), poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) and glycerin have been developed to encapsulate a model protein (Bovine serum albumin, BSA), using central composite design (CCD) and surface methodology (RSM). Input variables were oxidation degree, NS concentration and polymeric mixture volume, while output variables were film´s thickness, equilibrium swelling and BSA release. DAS was obtained through hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) oxidation, and the oxidation degree is referred to as H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> concentration. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a rough surface, and formulations containing 10% H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> DAS presented micropores. Water uptake was greater with DAS than native starch, due to its hydroxyl groups shown in Fourier transformed infrared spectra. Fil thickness depended on the volume of the polymeric suspension and influenced the swelling capacity; thicker films absorbed less water. According to RSM, the optimal formulation was DAS with 5% H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and 35% NS. Oxidized sweet potato starch has potential for biomaterial applications, as films developed with it can encapsulate a protein and release it in a controlled fashion.</p> 2021-07-12T20:00:05+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 José Alvarez-Barreto, Daniela Viteri Narvaez, Juan Sebastian Proaño Aviles, Andrés Bernando Caicedo Páliz, Michelle Amanda Grunauer Andrade, Luis Ricardo Eguiguren, Michel Vargas Autonomic Face Mask Detection with Deep Learning: an IoT Application 2021-08-17T03:07:05+00:00 Víctor Hugo Benitez Baltazar Jesús Horacio Pacheco Ramírez Jose Roberto Moreno Ruiz Cristian Nuñez Gurrola <p>A new and deadly virus known as SARS-CoV-2, which is responsible for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), is spreading rapidly around the world causing more than 3 million deaths. Hence, there is an urgent need to find new and innovative ways to reduce the likelihood of infection. One of the most common ways of catching the virus is by being in contact with droplets delivered by a sick person. The risk can be reduced by wearing a face mask as suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO), especially in closed environments such as classrooms, hospitals, and supermarkets. However, people hesitate to use a face mask leading to an increase in the risk of spreading the disease, moreover when the face mask is used, sometimes it is worn in the wrong way. In this work, an autonomic face mask detection system with deep learning and powered by the image tracking technique used for the augmented reality development is proposed as a mechanism to request the correct use of face masks to grant access to people to critical areas. To achieve this, a machine learning model based on Convolutional Neural Networks was built on top of an IoT framework to enforce the correct use of the face mask in required areas as it is requested by law in some regions.</p> 2021-08-17T03:07:04+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Víctor Hugo Benitez Baltazar, Jesús Horacio Pacheco Ramírez, Jose Roberto Moreno Ruiz, Cristian Nuñez Gurrola Evaluation of Parameters in PLA and PCL Scaffolds to be Used in Cartilaginous Tissues 2021-08-25T04:59:43+00:00 Klear Cea Marcelo Donoso Guillaume Sérandour Gabriela Martínez Luz Alegría <p>The scopes of medical treatments involving organ transplants and implants for chronic problems and trauma have changed significantly. However, these procedures are subject to multiple problems. Recently, tissue engineering has been used to address them. The present study is framed in the field of tissue engineering, particularly cartilage tissue, and proposes the evaluation of geometric and impression parameters for the manufacture of scaffolds as a basis for the growth of cells through 3D impression techniques. These scaffolds are highly porous three-dimensional supports that house donated or himself patient cells, providing a surface where the cells can adhere and proliferate. In the methodology, geometric and pore size variables are defined for scaffolding modeling by using CAD techniques and standardization of the printing process with standard 3D printers and accessible materials. The results showed that material flow, printing temperature, printing speed and ventilation are the most influential parameters in the manufacture of scaffolds. Additionally, it was found micrometric variations between the modeled design and the printing result. These scaffolds will subsequently be subjected to <em>in vitro</em> cell culture evaluating the adherence, division, and proliferation of the cells.</p> 2021-08-25T04:59:43+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Klear Cea, Marcelo Donoso, Guillaume Sérandour, Gabriela Martínez, Luz Alegría Three-dimensional printing in healthcare 2021-03-21T02:13:30+00:00 Alberto Isaac Pérez Sanpablo Elisa Romero Avila Arturo González Mendoza <p>This work aims to briefly present the cutting edge of 3D printing innovation in healthcare. This technology is used for surgical planning, medical education, bioprinting of tissues, and medical equipment spare parts in fields like pharmacology, prosthetics, surgery, and regenerative medicine. A review of the last decade was made in the search engines of PubMed and Espacenet. Three authors reviewed titles, abstracts, and keywords separately to identify studies appropriate to the topic. After the initial examination, complete texts of identified relevant studies were obtained and classified according to the authors. Results were synthesized in a narrative literature review. The revision showed that 3D printing has become of common use in the healthcare system since it allows medical personnel to implement customized solutions for each patient, thus reducing the probability of a false diagnostic or treatment. Major applications among the advantages and disadvantages of 3D printing in healthcare were presented. Nowadays, the main challenge in 3D printing is the cost of the equipment and its manufacturing. In the future, the challenges in cost could be reduced, but processing requirements and limited materials may still need further work.</p> 2021-03-21T02:13:29+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alberto Isaac Pérez Sanpablo, Elisa Romero Avila, Arturo González Mendoza Efficacy of Virtual Reality in Neurorehabilitation of Spinal Cord Injury Patients: A Systematic Review 2021-06-28T01:47:42+00:00 Bruno Alejandro Orsatti Sánchez Octavio Diaz Hernandez <p><span style="color: #222222; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; font-size: small; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">This systematic review (SR) analyzed the effectiveness of interventions using virtual reality (VR) technology as a neurorehabilitation therapy in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). The SR was developed under the guidelines of the PRISMA statement and the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration, along with the PEDro and National Institute of Health scales to assess the risk of bias and methodological quality. The Cochrane, IEEE, BVS/LILACS, MEDLINE/PubMed, and Web of Science databases were browsed to identify studies that, between 2010 and 2020, evaluated the efficacy of these therapies. Out of 353 retrieved studies, 11 were selected after applying the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. These articles presented good methodological quality as they were mostly controlled clinical trials that analyzed mixed therapies with conventional therapies. Interventions based on non-immersive or immersive VR technology that achieved functional motor, balance, and psycho-emotional health improvement with positive effects on motivation, self-confidence, commitment, and active participation were identified in a total sample of 155 SCI patients. It was concluded that such VR technology is an effective tool of neurorehabilitation complementary to conventional therapies, which promotes functional improvement in SCI patients both in the clinic and at home.</span></p> 2021-06-25T18:28:06+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Bruno Alejandro Orsatti Sánchez, Octavio Diaz Hernandez Pressure Pain Threshold Values Obtained Through Algometers 2021-08-25T04:54:35+00:00 Jose Humberto Trueba Francesca Gasparini José de Jesús Agustín Flores Cuautle <p>A review of the scientific literature on pressure pain obtained through algometers is carried out. A comparison of the pain pressure thresholds (PPT) obtained or considered within the analyzed studies was performed. The primary outcome of this work is the collection of these PPT values concerning the body regions where the algometers applied the pressure: trapezius muscles, back muscles, upper extremities, leg muscles, foot area, and muscles of the head. Furthermore, a comparison between the results of manual and electromechanical algometers is presented. Several tables are created, which can be useful to compare future studies that adopt pressure algometers. These values can also be considered a reference to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of new algometers, either manual or electromechanical. Besides, from the information obtained, the design requirements of an electromechanical pressure algometer are presented. These requirements are defined to develop a portable instrument that is also smaller, lighter, and cheaper than the existing ones and can measure the pressure in different parts of the human body.</p> 2021-08-25T04:54:34+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jose Humberto Trueba, Francesca Gasparini, José de Jesús Agustín Flores Cuautle